Sentence can be classified into five categories according to the meaning or functions.
- Assertive Sentence.
- Interrogative Sentence
- Imperative Sentence
- Optative Sentence.
- Exclamatory Sentence.
An assertive sentence is a simple statement or assertion, either affirmative or negative.
Subject + verb + Object/complement/adverb
-English is an International Language. (Affirmative)
-We do not do bad things. (Negative)
-Everybody should know English. (Modal auxiliaries)
Interrogative sentence is a sentence that ask question to replay about some person or things and ends with a question mark (?).
There are two ways to form an interrogative sentence.
I. Begins with helping verbs (am, is, are, was, were, have, had) or modal auxiliaries (shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might etc.).
– Do you have your assignment ready?
– Does he speak English?
– Did she work abroad?
– Should I go there?
– Can you hear the sound?
– Don’t you want any food? (Negative)
II. Begins with some specific words like who, which, what, when, where, why, how, whom, how much, how many. These are known as ‘WH’ questions.
– How is your business going on?
– Who fixed the computer?
– Whom do you support?
– What are you expecting from me?
– What time is it now?
– How many people have died there?
A sentence that expresses a request, command, order, advice, suggestion is an imperative sentence.
In a imperative sentence, subject is usually unexpressed, it is understood.
Subject (Invisible) + verb + object / where
– Take care of you.
– Give me the pen.
– Do it now.
– Be honest.
– Come here
– Never tell a lie
– Do not laugh at others helplessness.
– Let him go there.
Wish, desire, prayer are expressed by the Optative sentence.
May + Assertive
– May you live long.
– May Allah bless you.
– Wish you all the best.
– Long live Bangladesh (can be formed without ‘may’)
Exclamatory is a sentence which expresses strong/sudden feeling or emotion like surprise, pain, delight, an
ger, disgust etc.
Alas/ Hurrah/ Bravo/ What/ How etc. + Others
– Hurrah! Our cricket team has won the series.
– Alas! He has failed the competition.
– Bravo! You have done a great job.
– What a talent-full girl she is!
– How sweetly the cuckoo sings!
– What a wonderful land Bangladesh is!
– Were I a Super Hero!
– What a pity!
– What an idea!
– Put that down now!
– Leave the package at the door.
– Walk softly, please.
Structure of a Sentence:
According to structure sentence are three types.
I. Simple Sentence.
II. Complex Sentence.
III. Compound Sentence.
I. Simple Sentence:
Simple sentence is structured with only one subject and one finite verb.
Simple sentence has only one independent clause.
Subject + finite verb + complement
Example: – Bangladesh is a populated country
– Life is not a bed of roses
– Human is the superior in this planet.
II. Complex Sentence:
A sentence consisting of one principal clause and one or more sub-ordinate clauses is a complex sentence.
– If you work hard, you will shine in life. (Here, ‘if you work hard’ is sub-ordinate clause and ‘you will shine in life’ is Main or principal clause)
Sub-ordinate clause begins with conjunctions like who, which, that, when, how, where, while, if, whether, because, since, as, though, although, till, until, unless, before, after, so that, whenever, wherever
, whoever, whatever etc.
Example: – I know where he lives.
– I do not know what his name is.
– While there is life there is hope
– We eat so that we can survive.
III. Compound Sentence:
A sentence having more than one principal clauses linked by one or more coordinating conjunctions preceded by a comma is called compound sentence.
Conjunctions are used in compound sentences are and, but, or, for, nor, also, however, moreover, thus, so, therefore, else, still, as well as, accordingly, otherwise, yet, not yet, but also, either or, neither nor, on the contrary etc.
– Respect others, and others will respect you.
– He loves us, but he does not show it.